Salamun Alaikum (Peace be upon you)
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The following verses leave no room for ambiguity and remain explicitly clear in what they state. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was instructed to make known to his audience in no uncertain terms that:
Say: "I have no power over any harm or profit to myself except as God wills. To every people is a term appointed: when their term is reached, not an hour can they cause delay, nor (an hour) can they advance (it in anticipation)."
Say: "I have no power over any good or harm to myself except as God wills. If I had knowledge of the unseen, I should have multiplied all good, and no evil should have touched me: I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings to those who have faith."
Say: I am not the first of the messengers, and I do not know what will be done with me or with you: I do not follow anything but that which is revealed to me, and I am nothing but a plain warner.
The previous verse also makes it clear that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was no different from the previous messengers in that he had no knowledge what would be his outcome or that of his people, thus clearly intimating that he had absolutely no capacity to assist another, especially if he couldn't help himself.
Similar sentiments are also shared by other messengers of God. We note Prophet Noah (pbuh) to assert:
"I tell you not that with me are the treasures of God, nor do I know what is hidden, nor claim I to be an angel. Nor yet do I say, of those whom your eyes do despise that God will not grant them (all) that is good: God knows best what is in their souls: I should, if I did, indeed be a wrong-doer."
Prophet Jesus (pbuh) also absolves himself of any wrongdoing or knowledge of what his people would do after him. This also confirms the sentiments of all the messengers that they had no prior knowledge of what would be the outcome of a people underscoring the fact that they would be in no position to provide any assistance.
And when God will say: O Jesus son of Mary! did you say to men, Take me and my mother for two gods besides God, he will say: Glory be to You, it did not befit me that I should say what I had no right to (say); if I had said it, You would indeed have known it; You know what is in my mind, and I do not know what is in your mind, surely you are the great Knower of the unseen things. I did not say anything to them except what you commanded me with: That worship God, my Lord and your Lord, and I was a witness over them as long as I was among them, but when you caused me to die (Arabic: Tawafaytani), you were the watcher over them, and you are witness of all things.
There is no support from the Quran for the belief that messengers of God knew what would happen to their people or themselves. If the appointed messengers of God couldn't help themselves, it is inconceivable that they would be in a position to help another on the Day of Judgement.
(1) Intercession and the Prophet's Help
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